Hazardous Solid Waste and Management

Waste is declared hazardous if the potential exists to be harmful or dangerous to the environment or human health. It can be sludge’s, gases, solids or liquids and discarded from industrial, commercial or household products. It includes pesticides, cleaning materials, electronics, paints, oils or by-products during a manufacturing product or process. Waste management methods are specialized and different to the processing of non-hazardous waste. Different types of Hazardous Solid Wastes are:
• Household Hazardous waste – Includes leftover and used household products containing reactive, ignitable, toxic and corrosive constituents. Light bulbs, pesticides, batteries, cleaners, paints, oil and medical waste are examples. Managing waste that contains potentially hazardous ingredients are specialized and different collection methods are used as specified by the EPA.
• Industrial Hazardous Waste – Industrial facilities, processing units, manufacturing plants, maintenance units, workshops, chemical plants and nuclear facilities all falling under the category. It gets broken down into four different list in regards to safety of removal and disposal of waste:
? F-list – managing waste generated from manufacturing or industrial processes and usually no specific source waste.
? K – list – managing waste from industrial such as wood treatment, petroleum refining, inorganic pigment of chemicals, pesticide manufacturing, veterinary pharmaceuticals, metal production plant and coke production.
? P –list and U –list – Commercial chemical products intended to be discarded or discarded with container residues, listed generic names, and off-specification species or spill residues. P – List is acute hazardous waste and U- list contains toxic waste. The Hazardous Waste Listings lists the full list of which falls under what category or list.
• Universal Waste – Mercury-containing products, pesticides, batteries and light bulbs are declared as universal waste to streamline waste management to facilitate proper storage, collection, treatment and disposal. This will increase recycling and recovery rates and reduce the use of incinerators and use of landfills.
• Characteristic Waste – Specific characteristics of corrosiveness, toxicity, ignitability and reactivity defines the waste management of lead and mercury for example. Toxic wastes, gases, explosives and lithium-sulphur batteries falls under this category as it may be harmful when ingested or inhaled.
• Mixed Waste – Managing waste that contain hazardous and radioactive components make regulation complicated. Mixed waste falls under three categories which are Low Level Mixed, High Level Mixed and Mixed Trans Uranic Waste. This usually comes from nuclear power plants, medical diagnostic testing, biotechnology development, pharmaceutical development, hospitals and pesticide research.